The psychology it is the discipline that investigates the mental processes of people and animals. The word comes from the Greek: psycho- (mental or soul activity) and -lodge (study). This discipline analyzes the three dimensions of the aforementioned processes: cognitive , affective and behavioral .
Modern psychology has been responsible for collecting facts about the behaviors and the experiences of living beings , organizing them systematically and developing theories for their understanding. These studies explain their behavior and, in some cases, predict their future actions.
Those who develop the study of psychology are called psychologists . This means, those who analyze the behavior of living beings from a scientific approach. Sigmund Freud , Carl Jung and Jean Piaget They are considered as some of the pioneering psychologists.
The methodology of study of psychology is divided into two main branches: the one that understands this discipline as a basic science (also called experimental ) and uses a scientific-quantitative methodology (contrast hypotheses with variables that can be quantified in the context of an experimental environment), and another that seeks to understand the psychological phenomenon through qualitative methodologies that enrich the description and help to understand the processes.
There are many psychological currents, but surely the best known school of psychology is the cognitive , which studies the act of knowledge (the way in which the information received through the senses is understood, organized and used). Thus, cognitive psychology studies functions such as attention, perception, memory and language.
Psychology can be divided into basic psychology (its function is to generate new knowledge regarding psychological phenomena) and applied psychology (It aims to solve practical problems through the application of knowledge produced by basic psychology).
On the other hand, it is necessary to clarify that psychology is a science in constant development and given the social and moral conditions, it is transformed based on the maturity of societies over time. Currently, psychology is divided into several branches, which are connected as long as they try to respond to the same, the reason for actions and the effects that experiences may have on a living being or group to condition its existence. Some of the areas of psychology are:
The physiological psychology It is the branch of this science that is dedicated to studying the functioning of the brain and nervous system
The experimental psychology study perception and memory using specific laboratory techniques to help discern human behavior in this regard.
Is called Social psychology to the branch that is in charge of analyzing the influences that mark the social environment on an individual, which are studied based on the reactions that that individual has against the experiences that happen to him.
Industrial psychology It is the part of psychology that studies the work environment of a group of workers and tries to find ways to understand what can be harmful within the activity that is developed, looking for solutions to these problems.
Clinical psychology It is called the branch that is responsible for studying and helping those people who have problems to face their life normally, as a result of a mental disorder or a particular condition.
In conclusion, psychology can be understood as the science that deals with issues that concern the spirit, the way of feeling of an individual or a people, their moral aspects and the way in which they develop with the environment. In other words, the study of subjective life, and the relationships established between the psychic and physical aspects of individuals (feelings, ideology, reactions, tendencies, instincts).