The term autarchy It has two different etymological roots, both from the language Greek On the one hand, autarchy can derive from autarchía, a concept that translates as "Total power" . On the other hand, the notion can originate in autárkeia: "Self-sufficiency" .
The idea of autarchy, thus, refers to have self control or to be self sufficient . By extension, there is talk of autarchy when a State intends to satisfy its needs with its own resources, without relying on others .
A regimen or system which aims to achieve autarchy, therefore, pursues the self-supply . The objective is to generate the necessary resources so as not to have to request external help. Autarchy equals independence : no other or others are needed for operation or subsistence.
In general, autarchy is an ideal or a theoretical concept, since in practice it is almost impossible to achieve. A person For example, it has autarchy if it does not depend on society for the satisfaction of its essential needs. That would be the case of an individual who grows his own food, makes his clothes and seeks the medicines he needs, to name a case.
A country It reaches autarchy when it can meet the needs of its inhabitants without relying on economic exchanges with the outside and without taking external credits. For this to be possible, the nation in question must have an immense amount of natural resources and developed and sustainable industries that produce all the necessary goods.
Sometimes, people talk about dictatorships as autarchies, taking the first mentioned meaning of the term (the provision of absolute power ).
As can be seen in the previous paragraphs, the concept of autarky (which is also known by the names self-sufficient economy, self-sufficiency and autarchy), does not focus solely on governments but serves to describe the condition of any society, mechanism, industrial system, place, nation or person struggling to reach a situation of self-supply.
Depending on the point of view from which it is analyzed, this state can be considered positive or negative. Positive, if we understand that the refusal to receive help on the part of an external entity it has an impact on greater growth and use of the resources themselves; negative, if this leads to impoverishment at the cultural level because of limited contact with the rest of the world.
On the other hand, it is important to note that not any country or individual can aspire to autarchy, and this brings us back to the previous dilemma. If a nation that has the natural resources enough to grow their own food and develop the necessary raw materials for the various manufacturing processes that could sustain their economy, so the decision to refuse help from others can lead to a stage of greater productivity.
Various currents of the philosophy developed in ancient Greece, he saw autarchy as an ideal way of life. The fact of being able to achieve happiness by making exclusive use of virtue was considered a synonym of wisdom by the Cyrenaic, Epicurean, Stoic and Cynical schools. The ideal traits of the wise person are ataraxia, autonomy and autarchy , which give him imperturbability, freedom and independence.
In the field of administrative law , autarchy is understood as a way of decentralization thanks to which self-government is possible; It is one of the main features of the autarchic entity. He constitutional right It defines it in a similar way, since it speaks of the ability to self-govern or self-administer, although with the difference of submitting to certain statutes that come from a higher power.