It is known as oncology to Medical speciality that specializes in the analysis and treatment of both benign and malignant tumors . The concept has its origin in the Greek language and is composed of words onkos (translated as "dough" , "tumor" ) and logos (in Spanish, "study" ).
Oncology, therefore, is responsible for detect, fight and control cancer . In the case of treatment, it contemplates the possibility of subjecting the patient to surgery and non-surgical therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
On the other hand, oncology is responsible for offering palliative care to those who suffer diseases terminals, investigates the ethical issues associated with the care of individuals with cancer and addresses genetic tests focused on the detection of tumors.
It is possible to distinguish between various types of oncologists (as experts in oncology are known). In this way, we can mention the cancer surgeons (specialized in tumor extraction), medical oncologists (who use antineoplastic drugs, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy) and radiation oncologists (those who propose radiation-based treatments).
On the other hand, according to the patients they care for, oncologists can be considered as oncological gynecologists (treat female cancer) u pediatric oncologists (who take care of children with various kinds of cancer), among others.
When dealing with a cancer, there are several treatments currently used that are used depending on the type of disease, the state of the disease and the characteristics presented by the patient in question. Thus, for example, we can talk about cancer surgery, which is the one in which the doctor carries out the extraction of cancer and the surrounding tissue.
At the moment it can be said that it is the most effective therapeutic modality to end this disease and it can be carried out with various objectives such as the diagnosis in which case it is called biopsy, preventive, the study of the state of cancer or that of reduction of tumor mass.
Radiation therapy is another of the most useful and used treatments to deal with this serious disease. Specifically, it involves the use of high-energy X-rays in order to reduce tumors and also to eliminate so-called cancer cells. When this alternative is more effective it is to end small tumors.
CAM, complementary and alternative medicine, is also one of the pillars in terms of treatments for many patients. Specifically, this proposal is to reduce pain, as well as to prevent or reduce the symptoms of cancer or cure it by using a series of therapies such as immunotherapy, acupuncture or homeopathy.
Refering to chemotherapy , it is necessary to remember that it is one of the most used treatments by oncologists and that it can be defined as polychemotherapy (when it is based on the combination of multiple cytotoxic agents that have different mechanisms of action), adjuvant chemotherapy (administered after main treatment such as surgery), neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy (recommended before undergoing surgical or radiotherapy treatments) and concomitant radiotherapy (also known as chemoradiotherapy, which is administered concurrently or with radiotherapy).