Gaucho It is a term used in Argentina , Uruguay and the southern brazil to name a type of farmer . The gauchos are very skilled riders who work in rural jobs.
Although today it is used to designate the employees of the farms, in its origins the gauchos lived very differently. They were nomadic individuals, usually loners, who were making a living helping with the care of cattle and earning in return a place to sleep, food and some money.
The etymology of the word has very diverse roots, although most scholars agree that it is possibly derived from the Quechua term "huachu" which means orphan or wanderer. However, in Brazil it is mostly believed that it has its origin in the term "gauderio" , which was the way they called the homeless who lived in the vast expanses of the Rio Grande do Sul countryside. And, perhaps, the term is a fusion of both concepts, along with other terms related to the life of these particular Latin American characters.
This way of naming rural workers, however, was extended mostly in 18th and 19th centuries , especially thanks to literature, where these characters began to appear starring all kinds of stories. Time when Gaucho literature also emerged, whose main feature was the pride of this type of life and these men.
The rise of modernity: the seizure of land in the hands of large landowners and, above all, the invention of fences to delimit territories and order cattle in one place, they led to the disappearance of the gaucho proper . And, from the twentieth century, those men who defended the values of the old gauchos but who lacked their freedom were called from this world; who were hired in a field, in which they spent much (if not all) of their lives. Nomadism was left behind and with it, the true identity of the gaucho: being free. Today, the one who wears the clothing of the ancient nomads is called gaucho; clothing that is considered traditional and is deeply rooted in the nationalism from countries like Argentina and Uruguay.
The fundamental complements of the gaucho clothing were: foal boots, chiripá, beret or headband, bowling, loop, guitar and the infallible mate . The gauchos were also big payers , able to improvise recited next to his guitar. In fact, they used to meet in the grocery stores, where they danced, sang, drank wine and played trick or taba.
History is written by those who win, even if everyone loses. Such is the case of the essential place that these characters occupied in the history of Latin American countries. Many gauchos had preponderant roles in the struggles for independence of these nations or in the civil conflicts of the region.
Some by their own decision and others (the vast majority) because they were forced by the government on duty, fought in wars that did not even represent them. And, those who did not accept "serving the cause" were persecuted and, if necessary, killed. Many of them were forced to fight with aboriginal communities they respected , as long as you don't lose your own life and doomed to loneliness and the most absolute sadness. And, having done so much for that "freedom" and for such a little needed war, they were abandoned to the good of good luck: tired, sore and absolutely unhappy.
Finally, it is worth mentioning that certain authors such as José Hernández, Ricardo Güiraldes, Leopoldo Lugones and Victoria Ocampo created various gaucho characters that would become true icons for lovers of their culture. Among the most famous gaucho fictional characters are Martin Fierro (created by Jose Hernandez ) and "Don Segundo Sombra" (creation of Ricardo Güiraldes) .