Before getting to know the meaning of the term prokaryotic cell it is necessary to know the etymological origin of the two words that shape it:
-Cell is a word that derives Latin, specifically from "cellula", which can be translated as "small cell". It is formed from the noun "cella", which is synonymous with "cell", and from the diminutive "-ula".
-Procariot, on the other hand, is a neologism formed from the following components of Greek roots: "pro-", which can be translated as "before"; the word "karuon", which is synonymous with "nut" and "tes" which is equivalent to "agent".
The essential units of living beings, capable of reproducing independently, are called cells . These microscopic units have a region known as cytoplasm and with a nucleus .
The prokaryotic cells are those whose core is not delimited or defined . In this way they differ from eukaryotic cells , which do have a cell nucleus delimited and separated from the cytoplasm.
It is important to mention that, in the nucleus, the cell harbors the genetic information. In the case of prokaryotic cells or prokaryotes , not having a defined core, this material is distributed in a region of the cytoplasm that is known as nucleoid .
In most prokaryotic cells it is possible to distinguish the cellular wall , the plasma membrane , he cytoplasm (with the nucleoid ), the ribosomes and the so-called prokaryotic compartments .
In addition to all of the above, we can establish that prokaryotic cells have two types of food:
-Autotrophic feeding, which means that they can feed themselves. Specifically, they can do it using organic matter, making use of what sunlight is by what is known as photosynthesis or using inorganic matter.
-Heterotrophic feeding. This takes place when these prokaryotic cells need other organisms, which they parasitize, in order to be able to nourish as they need to live. This type of parasitization can be of various types: symbiotic nutrition, which is when cells and organisms “reach an agreement” because they both benefit; saprophytic nutrition, which takes place when there is a process of decomposition of the organism; and parasitic nutrition, which is when it parasites the body without causing death.
As for what reproduction is, it can also be of two types: parasexual or asexual.
Biologists link prokaryotic cells with the origin of the lifetime and argue that the appearance of eukaryotic cells enabled the development of more complex organisms. He process which allowed the creation of eukaryotic cells is called eukaryogenesis .
There was, according to one hypothesis , a “Last universal common ancestor”: Lucca , according to the acronym in English. This would be a prokaryotic unicellular organism from which the rest of living beings descend.
The vast majority of unicellular organisms, in fact, remain prokaryotes. The bacteria , for example, are prokaryotic organisms. They are formed by prokaryotic cells, with their genetic material dispersed in the cytoplasm area.
The arches Are others organisms with prokaryotic cells. Previously they were considered bacteria but then, when several differences were discovered with these organisms, they "Became independent" to this type of domains in the domain Archaea .