The computer , that indispensable team in the daily life of today that is also known by the name of computer or computer , is an electronic machine that allows you to process and accumulate data. The term comes from Latin I will compute ("calculate").
If we look for the exact definition of the term computer we will find that it is an electronic machine capable of receive, process and return results around certain data and that to perform this task has an input and an output. On the other hand, that a computer system It consists of two subsystems that receive the names of software and hardware , the first consists of the logical part of the computer (programs, applications, etc.) the second in the physical part (elements that form it as mother, fan, RAM).
For its operation, the computer requires computer programs (software) that provide specific data, necessary for the processing of information. Once the desired information has been obtained, it can be used internally or transferred to another computer or electronic component.
In general, a computer is composed of the monitor, the keyboard, the mouse, the tower (where the hard disk and the other hardware components are located) and the printer, and each one fulfills a particular function. On the other hand, this device is prepared to perform two functions mainly: respond to a particular command system quickly and execute programs, which consist of a series of instructions recorded in advance.
The software of a computer is one of the fundamental elements for its operation, its operating system, which consists of a large platform where programs, applications or tools that serve to perform different tasks can be executed.
The hardware on the other hand, is formed by memory (allows data and programs to be stored), input devices (to enter data into the computer, eg: mouse and keyboard), output devices (to display data, eg: screen or printer) and CPU (brain of the computer where the instructions are executed. The acronym is the English form of Central Processing Unit.
The first computers appeared in the middle of the last century, since then they have not stopped manufacturing, growing by leaps and bounds. Despite this, most computers today still respect the architecture Eckert-Mauchly , published by John von Neumann and created by John Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly .
This architecture conceives four main sections in a computer: the logical and arithmetic unit (Arithmetic Logic Unit - ALU ), the control unit, the memory (a succession of storage cells that have a number, where each cell represents a unit of information known as a bit) and the devices of input and output . All these parts are interconnected by a group of cables called buses.
The connections inside a computer are called electronic circuits; the most complex are those included in the chips of modern microprocessors, which have a very powerful ALU inside. Each microprocessor can have multiple cores and these in turn have multiple execution units (each one has different ALUs).
It should be noted that the circuits next to those components linked to them allow to execute a variety of sequences or routines of instructions ordered by the user. These sequences are systematized based on a wide plurality of practical and specific applications, in a process called programming.
According to the way in which the computer works the data it receives can be called: digital, analog or hybrid . The digital ones process the data working on the basis of letters and special symbols, the analog ones do it using a common scale and the hybrids use both forms.
There are several types of computers: Microcomputers (small devices that can receive programming, this classification includes PCs or desktop computers), minicomputers (medium in size and slightly more expensive than the PC), maxycomputers (they serve to control many devices simultaneously, in this classification the mainframe calls come in) and supercomputers (They are the fastest and most expensive, those used to carry out large-scale projects such as movies or video games of the latest generation)
Some examples of phrases with this concept: "My father gave me a computer when I turned fifteen," "I don't know what to do: my computer broke down," "I have four new games on the computer.".