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The notion of dimorphism it is used in the field of biology to name the condition of those species of animals or plants that exhibit two anatomical aspects or two different forms . It is possible, in this sense, to distinguish between various types of dimorphisms.

He sexual dimorphism It is characterized by variations in the physiognomy between males and females , and this is usually present in most species, although with different degrees.

In the case of reptiles , the insects and the spiders For example, females tend to be larger than males. The opposite occurs with mammals , a group where males can reach a size much larger than that exhibited by females.

The deer (the male has antlers and the female does not) and the lions (the male stands out for his mane) are two animals with a clear sexual dimorphism. Even in the human being sexual dimorphism is evident, since the sexual organs of men manifest externally, while women have marked mammary glands.

He generational dimorphism (the alternation of different forms of reproduction in the same species), the seasonal dimorphism (changes in the color of the plumage of the birds according to the reproductive season) and the ecological dimorphism (Alterations according to the relationship with the environment or habits) are other types of dimorphisms warned by biology.

He cerebral sexual dimorphism, for its part, addresses the differences that can be seen in the brain of males and females of the same species, taking into account morphological and functional aspects. With respect to our own species, the many studies carried out have shown that the brain of the man is greater than that of the woman at volumetric level, although this has no impact on his intelligence.

For the geology, dimorphism is the condition of that substance that can crystallize in two different systems.

Fungal dimorphism

Also called fungal dimorphism, he fungal dimorphism is a phenomenon reversible by which a fungus can change its shape from a mycelial to a levaduriform.

The mycelium is the mass of cylindrical filamentous elements (hyphae) that are largely found in fungi and constitutes their body vegetative. Yeast, on the other hand, is the name given to any single-celled microscopic fungus with the ability to carry out decomposition through the fermentation of various organic bodies, especially carbohydrates and sugars, giving rise to various substances.

Dimorphism causes fungi to proliferate in the form of yeasts or large spherical structures in the tissues, although at room temperature they charge filamentous forms. Among the dimorphic fungi are the microorganisms that cause sporotrichosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidiomycosis and coccidiomycosis.

A fungus can present dimorphism in function from:

* temperature: occurs with Penicillium marneffei, which changes shape at a different temperature but without changing the medium. It can go from being filamentous (when the temperature is between 25 and 28 ° C) to levaduriform (between 37 and 37 ° C);

* nutrients: It can be seen in Candida albicans, which has a levaduriform form in rich culture media and a filamentous one, in poor media. The form of yeast is consistent in the way they reproduce and changes in the environment radically influence their morphology;

* temperature and nutrients: in this case of dimorphism the two newly exposed points are combined and can be seen in Histoplasma capsulatum, Sporothrix schenckii, Blastomyces dermatitides and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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