The notion of idealism It has two great meanings. On the one hand, it is used to describe the possibility of intelligence to idealize On the other hand, idealism is presented as a system of philosophical character that conceives ideas as the principle of being and knowing .
Profile idealism philosophical, therefore, argues that the reality that is outside the mind itself is not comprehensible in itself, since the object of man's knowledge is always constructed from cognitive action.
It can be said then that idealism opposes materialism , a doctrine that ensures that the only reality is matter. The subjective idealists they believe that the entity itself is unknowable, but the reflection offers the possibility of approaching the knowledge . For the objective idealists On the other hand, the only object that can be known is that which exists in the individual's thinking.
It is possible to distinguish, according to idealism, between phenomenon (the object that can be known according to the perception of the senses) and the noumenon (that is, the objects themselves, with their own characteristics natural). Reality is shaped by the content of man's consciousness: that is, by what we perceive and not by what it really is.
Differences with realism
In general, the terms idealism and realism are often confused, but there are many differences between the two that need to be noted.
In principle, both conceive the origin of knowledge in a diverse way; realism argues that it occurs in things, while idealism defines it as an activity that man performs to elaborate concepts.
Realism raises the existence of things regardless of our reasoning or our intellectual processes. On the other hand, idealism defends the participation of the mind for the conception, for example, of laws, mathematics or art, which would not take place without our intervention.
In this way, it is understood that idealism focuses on the human being as a necessary subject to give rise to reality, while realism starts from it and goes in its search. It depends on the degree of knowledge of both concepts, some claim that they are very close to being opposites, while others conceive them as complementary.
In colloquial language, idealism is associated with confidence in values that today fell into disuse and optimism. An idealist believes that the moral , the ethics , the goodness and the solidarity , for example, they manage to impose themselves against opposing concepts. For example: "My grandfather was always an idealist who fought for a better world".
Unfortunately, this sense of idealism is dangerously close to denial, which is one of the major causes of the failure of the human being as a species. Believing in a firm and unwavering way in something, ignoring the possibility of a change, turning a deaf ear to the diversity of opinions, is the same as dying; is to set limits that do not allow anything to progress, stagnate the air so that with the currents it does not bring new aromas. This attitude is usually associated with older people but, like other self-destructive attitudes, it does not repair age, gender or race.
In painting, idealism is a form of represent reality with a very high level of fidelity, similar to artistic realism. However, he opposes the latter as he tries purify it of any vulgar or lacking beauty element, according to the own vision of each artist. Only the major aspects elegance and refinement they pass the filter of said abstraction, resulting in necessarily fluid scenes, without much contrast and artificially balanced.