The Greek word we were, which can be translated as “Of the own territory” , came to French as endemic. That's where the idea of endemic , which is used in our language to refer to a disease which is common in a certain region.
The endemic, therefore, is a pathological process that subsists stationary in a certain area for an extended period. A disease turned into an endemic means that, in the territory in question, there is a high number of affected individuals over the years , beyond eventual fluctuations.
Endemic diseases are usually infectious . One of the most common is the yellow fever , also known as black vomit or american plague. The cause a virus that transmit the mosquitoes belonging to the genera Haemagogus and Aedes. The symptoms and their severity are quite variable, since they range from a mild fever to the presence of hemorrhages and liver conditions that can lead to death in 50% of cases.
The yellow fever For example, it is an endemic in several countries with a tropical climate: this means that there is a risk of contagion when someone remains in those nations. That's why before traveling to places where yellow fever is endemic, it is usually recommended get vaccinated against said disease, although the indication must be made by a doctor according to the individual conditions of each person . There are even countries that require the vaccine as a requirement to allow admission. It should be clarified that there are also non-infectious endemic diseases, given that many physiological conditions enter this wide category.
Chagas disease It is also endemic. The cause the protozoon flagellated Trypanosoma cruzi and affects various vertebrates before reaching the human being. This disease is found in many countries of the American continent, from southern North America to the Argentine Patagonia region and tens of millions of people get it every year.
The endemic not only remains over time in a defined geographical area or population, but can persist even through the different seasons of the year, something that does not occur with certain common diseases. According to the intensity of transmission, it is possible to classify endemic diseases as follows:
* hypoendemic : are those whose degree of transmission is very low, and whose effects are not really considerable;
* mesoedemics : these diseases are established in stocks little. Its intensity depends largely on the conditions of the community, so it must be analyzed in each particular case;
* hyperendemic : The transmission of these endemic diseases is persistent although it lasts a short time. Its effects cannot be fought through the immunity of the population;
* holoedemic : This is the group with a higher degree of transmission, as well as a very wide distribution area that are generally due to the fact that the adult population does not have the necessary immunity to cope with it.
Depending on the number of affected, the endemia can become a epidemic or in one pandemic . The epidemic implies the simultaneous transmission, for a certain time, of a large number of people in the same area. If the epidemic spreads to several countries or affects almost all the individuals of a place, there is talk of a pandemic.
It is important to mention that endemics constitute a problem of public health . The State must guarantee prevention measures and treatments to care for citizens. The framework in which this concept is located is the epidemiology , a discipline of science that is responsible for the study of the frequency, distribution, control, predictions and determining factors that are linked to diseases and Health in certain human populations.