If we break this term into two parts, describing each of the words that form it, we can arrive at a correct definition of it.
The term Map It has its origin in the Latin word mappa and refers to graphic scheme which represents a territorial region. Usually the maps are flat, although there are also spherical (world maps).
For its part, the concept of politician , is an adjective that refers to the politics (the exercise of power or the process that a community develops to make ideological decisions that allow us to achieve common goals).
By unifying both meanings we can understand that the qualification of political map it is applied on those maps that exhibit the various political entities in which a territory is divided. These entities, fixed by the human being, allow to divide and organize the land, constituting itself as locations , cities , provinces , etc. In some cases, political maps include other elements created by people, such as train tracks , roads (roads) or artificial territorial boundaries.
A political map differs from a physical map because the seconds are those that represent the accidents of the nature (rivers, plateaus, mountains, etc.), without giving importance to the sovereignty that each State has on the territory. In other words, a political map shows territorial boundaries, while a physical one presents the geographical characteristics of that territory.
There are some maps that combine these two types of design, they are known as physical-political maps and exhibit, simultaneously, natural phenomena and political components.
As with any map, the metric properties present in political maps help to draw measurements and establish calculations of geographical distances or surfaces with good precision.
So that all this information is accessible from the same map, the cartographers (the experts in charge of its development) resort to various techniques to simplify the data, using scales, symbols and differentiated colors. In the case of political maps, the same sheet can show how a country is divided into provinces, what are the capitals of each province and how they are linked across roads.
Elements of a political map
The distribution of the elements in a political map allows the different points of interest for the observer, capitals of countries or provinces, most prominent cities, geographical areas that are important to understand the political organization of the area, most important rivers and details of absolute interest for each country or province.
Regarding the borders that separate each country it is important to note that those that appear there are those that have been accepted internationally as valid, and not those that each country believes are the limits of its territory. For example, in the case of those countries that dispute a piece of territory that is between the vicinity of both, on the maps it will appear on the side of that State that the rest of the countries of the world accept as sovereign of said territory, although not necessarily be understood in this way by all citizens.
The kind of political organization that appears on a map of this type can be division of territory into parties or town halls, States or countries, Provinces, Counties, Feudos, Emirates, Cities and Neighborhoods. Its usefulness lies not only in helping students understand the political structure of a particular place, but also so that States know in detail the area of their domains and know how to take measures to preserve them.
exist many types of maps , some that we can mention are:
The world map , for example, show political distribution across the planet. They are spherical and usually have a rotating shaft that allows you to move it to see each country up close.
The geological maps they are those that allow to observe the characteristics of the rocks and geological sediments of a place; in them you can see fault lines, possible erosions or geological accidents and study the internal structure of the land of a place. They are represented by universal symbols so that any connoisseur of the subject can understand them with the naked eye (for example, mountains are represented by a triangle).
There are also multipurpose maps , which contain a variety of essential information for specialists in certain areas. The aspects related to hydrography, the road network, the orography, the populations and any information that is considered pertinent to analyze a given region are usually represented.
There are also climate maps (they present the different climatic groups of a territory in colors), urban maps (it shows the urban areas of a region and the different communication routes between them), topographic maps (they contain all the information related to natural and artificial accidents of a certain place ).