He Marxism It is a doctrine that is based on theories that developed the famous Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . Both intellectuals of German origin reinterpreted the dialectical idealism popularized by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as dialectical materialism and proposed the creation of a society without class distinction . Political organizations created according to the guidelines of this doctrine are described as Marxists .
It should be noted that in addition to Hegel , other thinkers have contributed to the expansion of Marxism, such cases of Adam Smith , David Ricardo , Ludwig Feuerbach and of the different exponents of French utopian socialism of the 19th century.
The most important work of Marxism is "The Capital" ("Das Kapital" , in German). Marx published in life only the first volume, which appeared in 1867 . The remaining three books appeared between 1885 and 1894 , being edited by Engels from the manuscripts of Marx .
Marx's fundamental proposal, the one he postulates in "Capital"is to reach a society without class distinction where both the production process, as well as the productive forces and the relationships that arise from production become a social good . In this it differs from capitalism where the work is social but the appropriation of it is private, where work is bought for money.
The analysis of Marx's societies was based on class division proposed by capitalism, which did not coincide at all with the notion that the intellectual had of what a fair society was. On the one hand was the working class, which it also calls proletariat , who sell their labor and receive money in return, but who do not have the means for production, the main responsible for granting wealth to a society (build, manufacture, produce services, etc.) in turn this class is divided in proletariat Ordinary (who get a job easily and receive a fairly reasonable payment for their services) and lumpenproletariat (Those who live in absolute poverty and do not get stable jobs: immigrants, prostitutes, beggars, etc.). The other class is the bourgeoisie to which belong those who have the means of production and buy the service of the proletariat for its exploitation. This class can be divided into bourgeoisie very rich and small bourgeoisie (The latter are those who employ labor but also must work: merchants, smallholders, peasants with little land, etc.).
The idea of Marxism is to expropriate the means of production of the bourgeoisie and leave them in the hands of the proletariat so that the working classes are the only ones that benefit from the fruit of their work. However, this analysis does not include mechanisms to end class division. Anarchism, emerged years later, clung to the idea of ending them, and their fundamental thinkers Mikhail Bakunin and Piotr Kropotkin they labeled Marxism as inconsistent in proposing a revolution leaving the existence of a State. They assured that a true revolution must end not only with economic social divisions, but also with political hierarchies. However, the story ended up leaving anarchism as a Utopia even farther than Marxism itself.
In the field of religions, Marxism has always been totally contrary to them. There is a phrase that says that religion is the opium of the peoples that, although it is not known if it was really Marx, Nietzsche or Mao Tse Tung who pronounced it first, can clearly define the opinion that Marxists and later communists have about religious beliefs. It should be noted that for Marxism the essence of every human being is found in the whole of their relationships with the other individuals in the group. Relationships that are spiritual and material and where individual and collective consciousness occupy one of the fundamental places.
After Marx's death, which occurred in 1883, several divisions emerged within the party, one of the main ones was that of the social democrats (they considered that socialism could develop in a capitalist and multi-party society) and communists (They appealed to the revolution as an engine for an absolutely structural change), which were fundamental for the development of the political events that were seen at the beginning of the 20th century. These parties were inspired by Marxism to undertake their revolutions . Among the most important of the century were, the Bolshevik revolution headed by Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky lion , which was carried out in October 1917 in Russia , was the first large-scale attempt to install a Workers state of socialist characteristics. In this way Soviet Marxism ended up becoming Stalinism , a movement led by Yosif Stalin and criticized by many Marxists for considering that their spirit is dictatorial and bureaucratic.
Behind the Second World War , and thanks to the Soviet backing, the Communist Party managed to get to power in the People's Republic of China , Vietnam , East Germany , Poland , Albania and Romania , among other countries.
Of the most outstanding Marxist intellectuals of the twentieth century you can quote Georg Lukács , Louis althusser and Antonio Gramsci .
At present there are still many movements born of Marxism, but most of them, especially those that descend from social democracy, have distantly distanced themselves from the ideas of Karl Marx , to tell the truth the revolutionaries also because they are based on policies of extortion and imposition of new social regimes, resounding and immovable.
There has been no known Marxist state that respects the ideas raised by Marx. In his book "Hunger and silk", Herta Müller, makes a Nicolae Ceauşescu regime analysis where he affirms that that utopia that many continue to seek, Marxism as a political form that directs the destiny of all peoples does not exist and that instead there have been numerous cases of Marxist governments that have harassed villages and murdered entire families. For her political ideas cannot be measured solely from theory , because it is in practice where they are recognized and you can know if they are essential or not. Possibly only those who have lived under a regime of the wild scale of Nicolae Ceauşescu can understand his words.