Dam , from Latin repressus, is a work that is carried out to contain or regulate the course of Water . The concept is used to name the place where the waters are stopped, either artificially or naturally.
The dam or dam It consists of a barrier of concrete, stone or other material, which is built on a river, stream or canal to dam the water in its channel. Then this dammed water can be diverted to irrigation pipes or used for the production of Energy mechanical or electrical
In a dam it is possible to distinguish between reservoir (the volume of water retained), the slopes (which limit the body of the dam), the gates (the mechanical devices that allow to regulate the water flow), the dump (where the surplus of water rests when the dam is full) and the locks (which facilitate navigation through the dam), among other elements.
Dams can be divided into gravity dams (his own weight is responsible for resisting the thrust of water), breakwater dams (triangle shaped), inflatable dams and other types
There is a historical debate about the construction of dams. On the one hand, those in favor affirm that the man You must control the water to increase your well-being. Those who are against it, on the other hand, maintain that the dams are dangerous (their eventual breakage can cause the death of hundreds of people) and involve major social changes (such as population displacements or the loss of archeological sites) that are not justified.
The Energy The mechanics of the dams can be used directly, as did the old water mills, or indirectly, to generate electricity, as is the case in hydroelectric power plants.
Let's see below some of the most important dams in the world:
La Serena Reservoir
It is located in Spain, precisely on the Zújar river in the province of Badajoz. It was inaugurated by Don Juan Carlos I and Doña Sofía on February 2, 1990 and it is the second largest water bag in the entire peninsula, only surpassed in size by the Portuguese reservoir of Alqueva. his capacity of storage is around 3.2 billion liters of water.
With an area of 250 square kilometers, this marvel of Portuguese engineering can store up to 4150 cubic hectometers of water, which could supply the needs of all the inhabitants of Lisbon for four decades.
It is a dam with many purposes built in India, on the Bhagirathi River and was the most important of the company Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Ltd.. Among its capabilities is the generation of 2400 megawatts, the stabilization of irrigation to an area of 6000 square kilometers and the supply of drinking water to the urban areas of Delhi, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, in amounts around 270 million gallons
Also known as Manuel Moreno Torres, it is a dam located in Chiapas, Mexico, and is part of a huge plant hydroelectric that uses the force of water to generate electricity. The height of its curtain is 262 meters, which makes it an imposing structure in the middle of a beautiful natural landscape.
It took almost two decades to complete the construction of this dam in Georgia. It's about the structure of greater size of the whole region of the Caucasus: its height is around 270 meters and its extension revolves around 750 meters. Regarding its capacity, this dam can store around 1.1 million cubic meters.