Surplus It is a Latin word that comes from superāre and that refers to a surplus or a surplus . The concept is used in the economy and the finance to refer to the abundance of money Entering or equity compared to expenses or debts.
The economic surplus arises from the difference between income and expenses over a certain period of time . When the difference is positive (that is, income exceeds expenses), there is talk of a surplus. On the contrary, if the expenses exceed the income, it is a situation of deficit .
He state surplus takes place when income from public companies, taxes, withholdings, etc. outperform obligations and spending on public services. The existence of a surplus can lead to proper government management or the absence of social investments.
This specific case of surplus, which takes place within the state, we can establish that it is also known as the budget surplus. In contrast to this there is the so-called budget deficit, which is the one defined as the annual situation that occurs in a country when the expenses incurred by that State exceed the income earned in that same period.
At European level it can be established that among the nations with the greatest deficit of this type are Spain, Ireland, Greece or the United Kingdom. In front of them are Sweden, Norway or Hungary, which have the greatest surplus in their accounts.
Marxist theory also appeals to the notion of surplus, capital gain or surplus value . This surplus is the surplus of the value of a job that is appropriated by the capitalist . In other words, the Marxist surplus is the value that a worker produces exceeding the value of his workforce. This surplus is what the capitalist is left and allows the accumulation of wealth.
This surplus can be increased from an extension of the working day or an increase in the production force (making the same occur in less time or more in the same time).
In the economic field, we cannot ignore the existence of a term that uses the word we are analyzing. This is the so-called physical surplus that was developed by economist Piero Sraffa in the twentieth century. An east economist, founder of the Neo Ricardiana school, who played a fundamental role in this science.
Specifically, where it was most influenced in the field of production thanks to the development and improvement of theories about the production of goods, the structure of relative prices or the transformation of values into what were production prices.
Likewise, it is not necessary to ignore the fact that there is also the concept of a trade surplus. What is done with it is to establish that a country that exports one or more of its products achieves a greater profit or wealth thanks precisely to those businesses that it does with the nation that buys them.
Surplus, finally, is the abundance of anything . For example: "There is a surplus of strikers in the team".